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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948


On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."
PREAMBLE

    Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

    Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

    Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

    Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

    Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

    Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

    Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

    Article 1.

      All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

    Article 2.

      Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

    Article 3.

      Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

    Article 4.

      No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

    Article 5.

      No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

    Article 6.

      Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

    Article 7.

      All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

    Article 8.

      Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

    Article 9.

      No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

    Article 10.

      Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

    Article 11.

      (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

      (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

    Article 12.

      No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

    Article 13.

      (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

      (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

    Article 14.

      (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

      (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

    Article 15.

      (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.

      (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

    Article 16.

      (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

      (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

      (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

    Article 17.

      (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

      (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

    Article 18.

      Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

    Article 19.

      Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

    Article 20.

      (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

      (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

    Article 21.

      (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

      (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.

      (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

    Article 22.

      Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

    Article 23.

      (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

      (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

      (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

      (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

    Article 24.

      Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

    Article 25.

      (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

      (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

    Article 26.

      (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

      (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

      (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

    Article 27.

      (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

      (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

    Article 28.

      Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

    Article 29.

      (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

      (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

      (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

    Article 30.

      Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

    Member States:

    Following is the list of the 191 Member States of the United Nations with dates on which they joined the Organization.

    Member -- (Date of Admission)

    Afghanistan -- (19 Nov. 1946)
    Albania -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Algeria -- (8 Oct. 1962)
    Andorra -- (28 July 1993)
    Angola -- (1 Dec. 1976)
    Antigua and Barbuda -- (11 Nov. 1981)
    Argentina -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Armenia -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Australia -- (1 Nov. 1945)
    Austria-- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Azerbaijan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Bahamas -- (18 Sep. 1973)
    Bahrain -- (21 Sep. 1971)
    Bangladesh -- (17 Sep. 1974)
    Barbados -- (9 Dec. 1966)
    Belarus -- (24 Oct. 1945)

    On 19 September 1991, Byelorussia informed the United Nations that it had changed its name to Belarus.

    Belgium -- (27 Dec. 1945)
    Belize -- (25 Sep. 1981)
    Benin -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Bhutan -- (21 Sep. 1971)
    Bolivia -- (14 Nov. 1945)
    Bosnia and Herzegovina -- (22 May 1992)
    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 October 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/237 of 22 May 1992.

    Botswana -- (17 Oct. 1966)
    Brazil -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Brunei Darussalam -- (21 Sep. 1984)
    Bulgaria -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Burkina Faso -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Burundi -- (18 Sep. 1962)
    Cambodia -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Cameroon -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Canada -- (9 Nov. 1945)
    Cape Verde -- (16 Sep. 1975)
    Central African Republic -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Chad -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Chile -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    China -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Colombia -- (5 Nov. 1945)
    Comoros -- (12 Nov. 1975)
    Congo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Costa Rica -- (2 Nov. 1945)
    Côte d'Ivoire -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Croatia -- (22 May 1992)
    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 October 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    The Republic of Croatia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/238 of 22 May 1992.

    Cuba -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Cyprus -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Czech Republic -- (19 Jan. 1993)

    Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 January 1993, recommended to the General Assembly that the Czech Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Czech Republic was thus admitted on 19 January of that year as a Member State.

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Democratic Republic of the Congo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Denmark -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Djibouti -- (20 Sep. 1977)
    Dominica -- (18 Dec. 1978)
    Dominican Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Ecuador -- (21 Dec. 1945)
    Egypt -- (24 Oct. 1945)

    Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations.  On 2 September 1971, the United Arab Republic changed its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.

    El Salvador -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Equatorial Guinea -- (12 Nov. 1968)
    Eritrea -- (28 May 1993)
    Estonia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Ethiopia -- (13 Nov. 1945)
    Fiji -- (13 Oct. 1970)
    Finland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    France-- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Gabon -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Gambia -- (21 Sep. 1965)
    Georgia -- (31 July 1992)
    Germany -- (18 Sep. 1973)

    The Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were admitted to membership in the United Nations on 18 September 1973.  Through the accession of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, effective from 3 October 1990, the two German States have united to form one sovereign State.

    Ghana -- (8 Mar. 1957)
    Greece -- (25 Oct. 1945)
    Grenada -- (17 Sep. 1974)
    Guatemala -- (21 Nov. 1945)
    Guinea -- (12 Dec. 1958)
    Guinea-Bissau -- (17 Sep. 1974)
    Guyana -- (20 Sep. 1966)
    Haiti -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Honduras -- (17 Dec. 1945)
    Hungary -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Iceland -- (19 Nov. 1946)
    India -- (30 Oct. 1945)
    Indonesia -- (28 Sep. 1950)

    By letter of 20 January 1965, Indonesia announced its decision to withdraw from the United Nations "at this stage and under the present circumstances". By telegram of 19 September 1966, it announced its decision "to resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities". On 28 September 1966, the General Assembly took note of this decision and the President invited representatives of Indonesia to take seats in the Assembly.

    Iran (Islamic Republic of) -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Iraq -- (21 Dec. 1945)
    Ireland -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Israel -- (11 May 1949)
    Italy -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Jamaica -- (18 Sep. 1962)
    Japan -- (18 Dec. 1956)
    Jordan -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Kazakhstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Kenya -- (16 Dec. 1963)
    Kiribati -- (14 Sept. 1999)
    Kuwait -- (14 May 1963)
    Kyrgyzstan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Lao People's Democratic Republic -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Latvia -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Lebanon -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Lesotho -- (17 Oct. 1966)
    Liberia -- (2 Nov. 1945)
    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Liechtenstein-- (18 Sep. 1990)
    Lithuania -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Luxembourg-- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Madagascar -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Malawi -- (1 Dec. 1964)
    Malaysia-- (17 Sep. 1957)

    The Federation of Malaya joined the United Nations on 17 September 1957.  On 16 September 1963, its name was changed to Malaysia, following the admission to the new federation of Singapore, Sabah (North Borneo) and Sarawak. Singapore became an independent State on 9 August 1965 and a Member of the United Nations on 21 September 1965.

    Maldives-- (21 Sep. 1965)
    Mali -- (28 Sep. 1960)
    Malta -- (1 Dec. 1964)
    Marshall Islands -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Mauritania -- (27 Oct. 1961)
    Mauritius -- (24 Apr. 1968)
    Mexico -- (7 Nov. 1945)
    Micronesia (Federated States of) -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Monaco -- (28 May 1993)
    Mongolia -- (27 Oct. 1961)
    Morocco -- (12 Nov. 1956)
    Mozambique -- (16 Sep. 1975)
    Myanmar -- (19 Apr. 1948)
    Namibia -- (23 Apr. 1990)
    Nauru -- (14 Sept. 1999)
    Nepal -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Netherlands -- (10 Dec. 1945)
    New Zealand -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Nicaragua -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Niger -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Nigeria -- (7 Oct. 1960)
    Norway -- (27 Nov. 1945)
    Oman -- (7 Oct. 1971)
    Pakistan -- (30 Sep. 1947)
    Palau -- (15 Dec. 1994)
    Panama -- (13 Nov. 1945)
    Papua New Guinea -- (10 Oct. 1975)
    Paraguay -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Peru -- (31 Oct. 1945)
    Philippines -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Poland -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Portugal -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Qatar -- (21 Sep. 1971)
    Republic of Korea -- (17 Sep. 1991)
    Republic of Moldova -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Romania -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Russian Federation -- (24 Oct. 1945)

    The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 24 December 1991, Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian Federation, informed the Secretary-General that the membership of the Soviet Union in the Security Council and all other United Nations organs was being continued by the Russian Federation with the support of the 11 member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    Rwanda -- (18 Sep. 1962)
    Saint Kitts and Nevis -- (23 Sep. 1983)
    Saint Lucia -- (18 Sep. 1979)
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -- (16 Sep. 1980)
    Samoa -- (15 Dec. 1976)
    San Marino -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Sao Tome and Principe -- (16 Sep. 1975)
    Saudi Arabia -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Senegal -- (28 Sep. 1960)
    Serbia and Montenegro -- (1 Nov. 2000)

    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 October 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/55/12 of 1 November 2000.

    Following the adoption and the promulgation of the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro by the Assembly of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on 4 February 2003, the name of the State of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was changed to Serbia and Montenegro.

    Seychelles -- (21 Sep. 1976)
    Sierra Leone -- (27 Sep. 1961)
    Singapore -- (21 Sep. 1965)
    Slovakia -- (19 Jan. 1993)

    Czechoslovakia was an original Member of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. In a letter dated 10 December 1992, its Permanent Representative informed the Secretary-General that the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic would cease to exist on 31 December 1992 and that the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, as successor States, would apply for membership in the United Nations. Following the receipt of its application, the Security Council, on 8 January 1993, recommended to the General Assembly that the Slovak Republic be admitted to United Nations membership. The Slovak Republic was thus admitted on 19 January of that year as a Member State.

    Slovenia -- (22 May 1992)

    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 October 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    The Republic of Slovenia was admitted as a Member of the United Nations by General Assembly resolution A/RES/46/236 of 22 May 1992.

    Solomon Islands -- (19 Sep. 1978)
    Somalia -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    South Africa -- (7 Nov. 1945)
    Spain -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Sri Lanka -- (14 Dec. 1955)
    Sudan -- (12 Nov. 1956)
    Suriname -- (4 Dec. 1975)
    Swaziland -- (24 Sep. 1968)
    Sweden -- (19 Nov. 1946)
    Switzerland -- (10 Sep. 2002)
    Syrian Arab Republic -- (24 Oct. 1945)

    Egypt and Syria were original Members of the United Nations from 24 October 1945. Following a plebiscite on 21 February 1958, the United Arab Republic was established by a union of Egypt and Syria and continued as a single Member. On 13 October 1961, Syria, having resumed its status as an independent State, resumed its separate membership in the United Nations.

    Tajikistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Thailand -- (16 Dec. 1946)
    The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia -- (8 Apr. 1993)

    The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was an original Member of the United Nations, the Charter having been signed on its behalf on 26 June 1945 and ratified 19 October 1945, until its dissolution following the establishment and subsequent admission as new members of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, the Republic of Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

    By resolution A/RES/47/225 of 8 April 1993, the General Assembly decided to admit as a Member of the United Nations the State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name.

    Timor-Leste -- (27 Sep. 2002)
    Togo -- (20 Sep. 1960)
    Tonga -- (14 Sep. 1999)
    Trinidad and Tobago -- (18 Sep. 1962)
    Tunisia -- (12 Nov. 1956)
    Turkey -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Turkmenistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Tuvalu -- (5 Sept. 2000)
    Uganda -- (25 Oct. 1962)
    Ukraine-- (24 Oct. 1945)
    United Arab Emirates -- (9 Dec. 1971)
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland-- (24 Oct. 1945)
    United Republic of Tanzania -- (14 Dec. 1961)

    Tanganyika was a Member of the United Nations from 14 December 1961 and Zanzibar was a Member from 16 December 1963. Following the ratification on 26 April 1964 of Articles of Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar continued as a single Member, changing its name to the United Republic of Tanzania on 1 November 1964.

    United States of America -- (24 Oct. 1945)
    Uruguay -- (18 Dec. 1945)
    Uzbekistan -- (2 Mar. 1992)
    Vanuatu -- (15 Sep. 1981)
    Venezuela -- (15 Nov. 1945)
    Viet Nam -- (20 Sep. 1977)
    Yemen -- (30 Sep. 1947)

    Yemen was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 30 September 1947 and Democratic Yemen on 14 December 1967. On 22 May 1990, the two countries merged and have since been represented as one Member with the name "Yemen".

    Zambia -- (1 Dec. 1964)
    Zimbabwe -- (25 Aug. 1980)

    United Nations & NGO Relations WHRSC is International NGO applied for consultative status with ECOSOC (status catagory: 1) under consideration.

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